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Two Gods in Heaven

Jewish Concepts of God in Antiquity

Peter Schäfer

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ca. 28,99
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Princeton University Press img Link Publisher

Sachbuch / Religion: Allgemeines, Nachschlagewerke

Beschreibung

A book that challenges our most basic assumptions about Judeo-Christian monotheism

Contrary to popular belief, Judaism was not always strictly monotheistic. Two Gods in Heaven reveals the long and little-known history of a second, junior god in Judaism, showing how this idea was embraced by rabbis and Jewish mystics in the early centuries of the common era and casting Judaism's relationship with Christianity in an entirely different light.

Drawing on an in-depth analysis of ancient sources that have received little attention until now, Peter Schäfer demonstrates how the Jews of the pre-Christian Second Temple period had various names for a second heavenly power—such as Son of Man, Son of the Most High, and Firstborn before All Creation. He traces the development of the concept from the Son of Man vision in the biblical book of Daniel to the Qumran literature, the Ethiopic book of Enoch, and the Jewish philosopher Philo of Alexandria. After the destruction of the Second Temple, the picture changes drastically. While the early Christians of the New Testament took up the idea and developed it further, their Jewish contemporaries were divided. Most rejected the second god, but some—particularly the Jews of Babylonia and the writers of early Jewish mysticism—revived the ancient Jewish notion of two gods in heaven.

Describing how early Christianity and certain strands of rabbinic Judaism competed for ownership of a second god to the creator, this boldly argued and elegantly written book radically transforms our understanding of Judeo-Christian monotheism.

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Schlagwörter

Prayer of Joseph, People of God, Psalms, Son of God, Dead Sea Scrolls, Seven Heavens, Shekhinah, Tradition history, Yahweh, Manifestation of God, Elohim, Mekhilta, Israelites, Books of Samuel, Late Antiquity, Second Temple, Worship, Daniel 7, Baraita, 3 Enoch, David, Second Temple Judaism, Christian theology, Book of Ezekiel, Ephrem the Syrian, Servant of God, Ancient of Days, Documentary hypothesis, Lord of the World, Rabbinic Judaism, Merkabah mysticism, Literature, Rabbi, Heresy, Righteousness, Kabbalah, Holy of Holies, Incarnation (Christianity), Richard Bauckham, Angel of the Presence, New Testament, Christian literature, Book of Daniel, Christianity, Michael (archangel), Elijah, Angel of the Lord, Rabbinic literature, 11Q13, Trisagion, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Ezekiel, Hebrew Bible, Divinization (Christian), Hagigah, Judaism, Ancient Judaism (book), Apocryphon, Metatron, Exegesis, Book of Revelation, Christian, Hekhalot literature, Eschatology, Belial, Book of Wisdom, God the Father, Messiah in Judaism, Bible, Messiah, Theology, Book of Proverbs, Jewish mysticism, Christology, Jews, Sky deity, Deity, Pseudepigrapha, Teacher of Righteousness, Davidic line, Second Temple period, God Alone, Epistle to the Colossians, Church Fathers, Septuagint, Monotheism, Book of Enoch, Wisdom literature, Old Testament, Daniel Boyarin, Zechariah (Hebrew prophet), Rabbi Ishmael, Apotheosis, Religion, Midrash, Polemic, Heavenly host, God, Melchizedek, Epithet