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After Repression

How Polarization Derails Democratic Transition

Elizabeth R. Nugent

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Sozialwissenschaften, Recht, Wirtschaft / Politikwissenschaft

Beschreibung

How differing forms of repression shape the outcomes of democratic transitions

In the wake of the Arab Spring, newly empowered factions in Tunisia and Egypt vowed to work together to establish democracy. In Tunisia, political elites passed a new constitution, held parliamentary elections, and demonstrated the strength of their democracy with a peaceful transfer of power. Yet in Egypt, unity crumbled due to polarization among elites. Presenting a new theory of polarization under authoritarianism, After Repression reveals how polarization and the legacies of repression led to these substantially divergent political outcomes.

Drawing on original interviews and a wealth of new historical data, Elizabeth Nugent documents polarization among the opposition in Tunisia and Egypt prior to the Arab Spring, tracing how different kinds of repression influenced the bonds between opposition groups. She demonstrates how widespread repression created shared political identities and decreased polarization—such as in Tunisia—while targeted repression like that carried out against the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt led opposition groups to build distinct identities that increased polarization among them. This helps explain why elites in Tunisia were able to compromise, cooperate, and continue on the path to democratic consolidation while deeply polarized elites in Egypt contributed to the rapid reentrenchment of authoritarianism.

Providing vital new insights into the ways repression shapes polarization, After Repression helps to explain what happened in the turbulent days following the Arab Spring and illuminates the obstacles to democratic transitions around the world.

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Schlagwörter

Civil society, Persecution, Transliteration, Ancien Régime, Political prisoner, Regime, Secret police, Hunger strike, Islamism, Referendum, Intifada, Political division, Centrism, Democratization, Government, Institution, Legitimacy (political), Ideology, Political economy, Ettajdid Movement, Politics, Governance, Habib Bourguiba, Identity politics, Voting, Anwar Sadat, Democracy, Political spectrum, New Wafd Party, Democratic consolidation, Algeria, Harassment, Activism, Amnesty International, Arab Spring, Muslim Brotherhood, Terrorism, Comrade, Secularization, Nidaa Tounes, Colonialism, Political party, Career, Wafd Party, Totalitarianism, Left-wing politics, Protest, Politician, Oxford University Press, Liberalization, Mass arrest, Incumbent, Opposition Party, Tunisia, Transitional justice, Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Mass mobilization, Organizational structure, Respondent, Yale University, Judiciary, Dictatorship, Mohamed Morsi, Ingroups and outgroups, Legislation, Hosni Mubarak, Political crime, Princeton University Press, Secularism, Hamma Hammami, Constitutional amendment, Shura Council, Postdoctoral researcher, Party system, Social movement, Monopoly on violence, Communism, Assassination, Party leader, Authoritarianism, Path dependence, Political science, Militant (Trotskyist group), Criticism, The Islamist, Political repression, Ennahda Movement, State of emergency, Cambridge University Press, Sayyid, Public sphere, Election, Multi-party system, Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt), Manifesto, Resignation, Hamadi Jebali, Torture, Security forces, Central Security Forces