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Open Democracy

Reinventing Popular Rule for the Twenty-First Century

Hélène Landemore

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Geisteswissenschaften, Kunst, Musik / Philosophie


"Open Democracy envisions what true government by mass leadership could look like."—Nathan Heller, New Yorker
How a new model of democracy that opens up power to ordinary citizens could strengthen inclusiveness, responsiveness, and accountability in modern societies

To the ancient Greeks, democracy meant gathering in public and debating laws set by a randomly selected assembly of several hundred citizens. To the Icelandic Vikings, democracy meant meeting every summer in a field to discuss issues until consensus was reached. Our contemporary representative democracies are very different. Modern parliaments are gated and guarded, and it seems as if only certain people—with the right suit, accent, wealth, and connections—are welcome. Diagnosing what is wrong with representative government and aiming to recover some of the lost openness of ancient democracies, Open Democracy presents a new paradigm of democracy in which power is genuinely accessible to ordinary citizens.

Hélène Landemore favors the ideal of “representing and being represented in turn” over direct-democracy approaches. Supporting a fresh nonelectoral understanding of democratic representation, Landemore recommends centering political institutions around the “open mini-public”—a large, jury-like body of randomly selected citizens gathered to define laws and policies for the polity, in connection with the larger public. She also defends five institutional principles as the foundations of an open democracy: participatory rights, deliberation, the majoritarian principle, democratic representation, and transparency.

Open Democracy demonstrates that placing ordinary citizens, rather than elites, at the heart of democratic power is not only the true meaning of a government of, by, and for the people, but also feasible and, today more than ever, urgently needed.

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Hélène Landemore



Social group, Nation state, Affair, Popular referendum, Legitimacy (political), Tyranny of the majority, Just-so story, Economic inequality, Authoritarianism, Popular sovereignty, Contemporary society, Tertiary education, Direct democracy, OpenDemocracy, Puritans, European Parliament, Public sphere, Tribune of the Plebs, Activism, Mass society, Superiority (short story), Universal suffrage, Rule of law, Economic forces, Openness, Democracy, Month, Constitutional amendment, Deliberative democracy, Sovereignty, Reformism, Public participation, Access IS, Freedom of speech, Voting, All things, Authorization, Triumphalism, Majoritarianism, The Political Process, Post-democracy, Decision-making, Graphe paranomon, Alternative Way, Political philosophy, Political agenda, Anti-Federalism, Narrative, Power structure, Republicanism, Human Organization, Metic, Representative democracy, Governance, Veto, Illiberal democracy, Impiety, Liberalism, Proof of concept, Politics, Emerging technologies, Rights, Politician, Ian Shapiro, Democratic deficit, Nationalization, Microstate, Elite, Joshua Cohen (philosopher), Provision (contracting), Legislature, Infrastructure, Irrationality, State of nature, Michel Balinski, Institution, New Laws, Subsidiarity, Crowdsourcing, Three generations of human rights, Fraud, Territorial state, Bernie Sanders, Polyarchy, De facto, Self-interest, Financial crisis of 2007–08, French nationality law, Constitutional dictatorship, Political science, Sortition, Referendum, Populism, Individual and group rights, Disenchantment, Online Direct Democracy, Accountability, Partisan (political), Deliberation, Open government