Remembering the Modoc War
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Geisteswissenschaften, Kunst, Musik / Geschichte
On October 3, 1873, the U.S. Army hanged four Modoc headmen at Oregon's Fort Klamath. The condemned had supposedly murdered the only U.S. Army general to die during the Indian wars of the nineteenth century. Their much-anticipated execution marked the end of the Modoc War of 1872–73. But as Boyd Cothran demonstrates, the conflict's close marked the beginning of a new struggle over the memory of the war. Examining representations of the Modoc War in the context of rapidly expanding cultural and commercial marketplaces, Cothran shows how settlers created and sold narratives of the conflict that blamed the Modocs. These stories portrayed Indigenous people as the instigators of violence and white Americans as innocent victims.
Cothran examines the production and circulation of these narratives, from sensationalized published histories and staged lectures featuring Modoc survivors of the war to commemorations and promotional efforts to sell newly opened Indian lands to settlers. As Cothran argues, these narratives of American innocence justified not only violence against Indians in the settlement of the West but also the broader process of U.S. territorial and imperial expansion.
remembering violence, writing history as a form of settler colonialism, famous generals to die in Indian wars, Klamath Tribes, American West, memorialization, partisan politics and the Indian Wars, Winema, promotional literature and frontier history, Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, American innocence, Jeff Riddle and the Indian History of the Modoc War, Captain Jack Native American, Lava Beds National Monument, Captain Jack Medoc, Indian Wars and the global war on terror, Lava Beds War, Native Daughters of the Golden West, California's Last Indian War, Klamath Falls, Toby Riddle, historical memory and the Modoc War, historiography, marketplaces of remembering, the execution of Captain Jack, National Parks, lynching souvenirs in the American West, Oregon, Captain Jack Kintpuash, traveling Indian shows, Gilded Age, Indians in dime novels, Gilded Age newspaper industry, booster literature in the American West, Winema Pocahontas of the Lava Beds, veterans of the Indian wars, tourism and Indian war memorials, last Indian war, historical justice, Indian labor and the National Parks, commemoration, Grant's Peace Policy, Pocahontas in American literature, California, murder of General Edward R.S. Canby, critiques of multiculturalism