Game of Privilege
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Geisteswissenschaften, Kunst, Musik / Kulturgeschichte
This groundbreaking history of African Americans and golf explores the role of race, class, and public space in golf course development, the stories of individual black golfers during the age of segregation, the legal battle to integrate public golf courses, and the little-known history of the United Golfers Association (UGA)--a black golf tour that operated from 1925 to 1975. Lane Demas charts how African Americans nationwide organized social campaigns, filed lawsuits, and went to jail in order to desegregate courses; he also provides dramatic stories of golfers who boldly confronted wider segregation more broadly in their local communities. As national civil rights organizations debated golf's symbolism and whether or not to pursue the game's integration, black players and caddies took matters into their own hands and helped shape its subculture, while UGA participants forged one of the most durable black sporting organizations in American history as they fought to join the white Professional Golfers' Association (PGA).
From George F. Grant's invention of the golf tee in 1899 to the dominance of superstar Tiger Woods in the 1990s, this revelatory and comprehensive work challenges stereotypes and indeed the fundamental story of race and golf in American culture.
Earl Woods, Ethel Funches, Ella Baker, John Shippen, Beau Jack, Julia Siler, Joe Louis, integration, Al Morton, Potomac Park Golf Course, Eoline Thornton, Thelma Cowans, Ralph Ellison, Casa Loma Country Club, African American history, Charlie Sifford, Gary Player, Harlem, Holley v. Portsmouth, Ella Able, Cheyenne Woods, Douglass Park Golf Course, Jackie Robinson, Professional Golfers Association (PGA) history, Val Verde Resort, Shoal Creek Golf Course, Silver Rest Golf Club, Papwa Sewgolum, Charlie Owens, Durkee v. Murphy, Masters Tournament, Tam O’Shanter Golf Course, Bob Hope, Lee Carter, Bobby Jones, Beal v. Holcombe, Wake Robin Golf Club, Constance Baker Motley, George Johnson, Ray Botts, Arnold Palmer, sport history, Apex Country Club, Freeway Golf Course, Highland Park Golf Course, Wayside Golf Club, Lee Elder, Renee Powell, Rising Sun Country Club, Exie O’Chier, Lee Haven Beach Club, Fountain Valley Golf Course, Lou Harve, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Griffith Park Golf Course, Calvin Peete, North Park Golf Course, Tiger Woods, Timothy O’Neal, Mary Brown, George May, U.S. Open, Seneca Golf Course, race and sport, Chuck Thorpe, Crescent City Golf Club, Howard Brown, Joe Bartholomew, Pete Brown, Shinnecock Hills Golf Course, Ted Rhodes, Althea Gibson, Nettie Speedy, Alexander Looby, Nathaniel Starks, Pinehurst Golf Course, George Simkins, Swope Park Golf Course, Cobbs Creek Golf Course, Henry Baraben, Augustus v. Pensacola, National Capital Country Club, Jimmie DeVoe, Hugh Smith, Manaqua Country Club, Thurgood Marshall, United Golfers Association (UGA), Piney Wood Country Club, Miami Springs Golf Course, Martin Luther King Jr., Shasta Averyhardt, Robert Pat Ball, Billy Eckstine, Roy Wilkins, Tuskegee University, Fayson v. Beard, Ann Gregory, Ladies Professional Golfers Association (LPGA) history, Alice Stewart, Bill Spiller, Vernice Turner, Greensboro Six, Alfred “Tup” Holmes, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marie Thompson, Gillespie v. Lake Shore Golf Club Rice v. Arnold, Golf history, Gordon Chavis, Palos Park Golf Course, Langston Hughes, miniature golf, Hayes v. Crutcher, Cedar Crest Golf Course, Carrie Jones, Byron Nelson, LPGA Tour history, Porter Washington, William Wright, James Walker, Kankakee Shores Golf Club, John D. Rockefeller, Jones v. Attridge and Martha’s Vineyard Country Club, Tom Woodard, Chicago Defender, Law v. Baltimore, Lucy Williams, Apartheid, New Orlean, Simkins v. Greensboro, Bobby Stroble, Ward v. Miami, Idlewild Resort, Richard Thomas, Booker T. Washington Country Club, Langston Golf Course, George Franklin Grant, Shangri-La Resort, segregation, Leeper v. Charlotte Park and Recreation Commission, William Powell, Geneva Wilson, black caddies, Solomon Hughes, Jack Price, Civil Rights Movement, Sweeney v. Louisville, Adrian Stills, Wolfe v. North Carolina, Pebble Beach Golf Course, Harry Jackson, James Black, Anacostia Golf Course, Joseph Bramlett, Cliff Strickland, Walter Speedy, Jesse Owens, LaRee Sugg, Bing Crosby, Rackham Golf Course, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Ron Terry, Clara Kellnudi, Groves Center Golf Course, black golfers, Jack Nicklaus, Ginger Howard, Horace McDougal, Edison Marshall, Cedar River Golf Club, Parkridge Country Club, United States Golf Association (USGA), Jim Thorpe, Maggie Hathaway, Jim Dent, Cheshire Country Club, Coffin Golf Course, Rouge Park Golf Course, PGA Tour history, Debra Bennett, Mary Truitt, John Brooks Dendy, Harold Varner III, Curtis Sifford, Mapledale Golf Course, Mohansic Golf Course, Cablinasian, Augusta National Golf Club, Ponkapoag Golf Club, Laurie Stokien, Sadena Parks, Shady Rest Golf Club, Max Stanford, Ben Hogan, Delaney v. Central Valley Golf Club, Acorn Country Club, Walter Morgan, Howard Wheeler, Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM), Lincoln Country Club, Holmes v. Atlanta, Clearview Golf Club, Shalimar Country Club, Cleo Ball, Sunset Hills Country Club, Melanie Moye, Meadowood Country Club, Al Green