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The ‘Labour Hercules’: The Irish Citizen Army and Irish Republicanism, 1913–23

Jeffrey Leddin

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Geisteswissenschaften, Kunst, Musik / Geschichte


The Irish Citizen Army (ICA) was born from the Dublin Lockout of 1913, when industrialist William Martin Murphy ‘locked out’ workers who refused to resign from the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union, sparking one of the most dramatic industrial disputes in Irish history. Faced with threats of police brutality in response to the strike, James Connolly, James Larkin and Jack White established the ICA in the winter of 1913.

By the end of March 1914, the ICA espoused republican ideology and that the ownership of Ireland was ‘vested of right in the people of Ireland’. The ICA was in the process of being totally transformed, going on to provide significant support to the IRA during the 1916 Rising.

Despite Connolly’s execution and the internment of many ICA members, the ICA reorganised in 1917, subsequently developing networks for arms importation and ‘intelligence’, and later providing operative support for the War of Independence in Dublin.

The most extensive survey of the movement to date, The ‘Labour Hercules’ explores the ICA’s evolution into a republican army and its legacy to the present day.

Weitere Titel von diesem Autor



INLA, Belfast, Irish Transport and General Workers' Union, British Army, Curragh, Con Colbert, Under Which Flag, Ancient Order of Hibernians, Markievicz, arms smuggling, Bloody Sunday, GPO, James Connolly, Joan Burton, Watchword of Labour, Irish history, Irish Parliamentary Party, Nationalism, Protest, UVF, Black and Tans, Labour Party, HMS Helga, William O'Brien, Matthew Connolly, trade unionism, Sinn Féin, Easter proclamation, RIC, Hopkins and Hopkins jewellery shop, Lockout of 1913, arms dumps, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Edward Carson, IRA, ICA, Cathal Brugha, Anti-Austerity Alliance, John Redmond, Larkinism, Michael Donnelly, Socialism, de Coeur, Seán MacDermott, George Campbell, Warfare, militia, Irish Citizen Army, ITGWU, Four Courts, Unionism, Workers' Republic, radical nationalism, Irish Worker, James O'Shea, Roy Foster, Defence of the Realm Act, Lorcan Collins, labour, Pádraig Pearse, First World War, Home Rule crisis, James O'Neill, Asquith, The Starry Plough, John Hanratty, Christina Caffrey, Michael Mallin, Thoms Clarke, Dublin Castle, The Plough and the Stars, Thomas MacDonagh, Civic League, Frank Robbins, Joseph Plunkett, Dublin, Seán Connolly, Roger Casement, Óglaigh na hÉireann, General Post Office, Kathleen Lynn, Clan na Gael, Howth gunrunning, Rose Hackett, Nora Connolly O'Brien, William Partridge, Seán O'Casey, Trade unions, Thomas Foran, James Larkin, Dan Breen, Gerry Adams, manifesto, Arms dealing, Home Rule, conservative nationalism, Bachelor's Walk, Dublin Metropolitan Police, Clontarf, Jack White, Seamus McGowan, Easter Rising, conscription, IRB, Thomas Kain, Oscar Traynor, Michael Collins, arms raids, 1913 Lockout, Eamonn Ceannt, Liberty Hall, Lawrence Corbally, Army Pensions Board, War of Independence, R.F. Foster, Irish Trades Union Congress, Richard Corbally, Eoin MacNeill, Civil War, Ireland, Christopher Crothers, Frongoch, Irish Volunteers